Tomat

Tomat (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is a herb belongs to the genus Solanum of the family Solanaceae (The Plant List, 2013). There is a confusion about the classification name of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. under genus of Solanum or Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. under genus of Lycopersicon), which is still remain debated. Find more in 1 and 2.

Tomato plant has green and hairy stem and leaves. The plant also has small yellowish flowers. Fruits of this plant have been utilized for various purposes. Tomato fruits can be directly consumed or processed as a fresh drink (juice), used as ingredient, and processed into form of sauces or used as food decorations. “Sambal” is a complementary menu that actually compulsory for most of Indonesian people. It can improve appetite with spicy and savory taste. Besides, tomato fruits are also used for medicinal purposes to treat ulceration. Nutrients content of tomato is listed in Table 1.

Table 1. Nutrients content of 100 gram of fresh tomato fruits

Nutrient Content Unit
Energy 20 Calory
Protein 1.0 g
Fat 0.3 g
Carbohydrate 4.2 g
Calcium 5 mg
Phosphor 27 mg
Iron (Fe) 0.5 mg
Vitamin A 1500 SI
Vitamin B1 0.06 mg
Vitamin C 40 mg
Water 94.0 g
Edible part 95 %

There are a lot of varieties or cultivars of tomato cultivated by Indonesian farmers, such as Mutiara, Intan, Berlian, and Ratna. These varieties/cultivars were officially approved and recommended by Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture.

Mutiara Variety

This variety starts flowering after 40 days of sowing and forms fruits at 10 days afterwards. The fruits can be harvested at age of 83 days. Mature fruits of Mutiara variety are oval and red in color with weight of ±75 gram per each (±1.3 kilogram/plant). This variety is resistant to bacterial infection of Pseudomonas solanacearum (wilt disease) and fungal infection of Phytopthora infestans (blight disease). Besides, the variety is suitable to be planted in the lowlands and highlands.

Intan Variety

Similar to Mutira variety, Intan variety is suitable to be planted in the lowlands and highlands. This variety starts flowering at age of 55-60 days after sowing and forms fruits after 70-80 days. Farmers can start harvesting at age of 3 months. Mature fruits of Intan variety are round, orange to red in colors, slick glossy and slightly wavy with weight of ±45 gram per each. The yields of harvesting can reach ±12.4 t per hectare. This variety is resistant to bacterial infection of Pseudomonas solanacearum. However, this variety is sensitive towards Phytopthora infestans that caused early blight of the leaves.

Berlian and Ratna Varieties

These varieties have similar characteristics with Mutiara and Intan varieties. The unique of these varieties is their apple-like fruits.

Read more about these varieties here.

References

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List Version 1.1. 

Departemen Pertanian, Direktorat Jenderal Tanaman Pangan dan Hortikultura, 1996. Budidaya Tanaman Sayuran. V. Tomat. pp V-1 – V2.

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