Tomat (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is a herb belongs to the genus Solanum of the family Solanaceae (The Plant List, 2013). There is a confusion about the classification name of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. under genus of Solanum or Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. under genus of Lycopersicon), which is still remain debated. Find more in 1 and 2.

Tomato plant has green and hairy stem and leaves. The plant also has small yellowish flowers. Fruits of this plant have been utilized for various purposes. Tomato fruits can be directly consumed or processed as a fresh drink (juice), used as ingredient, and processed into form of sauces or used as food decorations. “Sambal” is a complementary menu that actually compulsory for most of Indonesian people. It can improve appetite with spicy and savory taste. Besides, tomato fruits are also used for medicinal purposes to treat ulceration. Nutrients content of tomato is listed in Table 1.

Table 1. Nutrients content of 100 gram of fresh tomato fruits

Nutrient Content Unit
Energy 20 Calory
Protein 1.0 g
Fat 0.3 g
Carbohydrate 4.2 g
Calcium 5 mg
Phosphor 27 mg
Iron (Fe) 0.5 mg
Vitamin A 1500 SI
Vitamin B1 0.06 mg
Vitamin C 40 mg
Water 94.0 g
Edible part 95 %

There are a lot of varieties or cultivars of tomato cultivated by Indonesian farmers, such as Mutiara, Intan, Berlian, and Ratna. These varieties/cultivars were officially approved and recommended by Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture.

Mutiara Variety

This variety starts flowering after 40 days of sowing and forms fruits at 10 days afterwards. The fruits can be harvested at age of 83 days. Mature fruits of Mutiara variety are oval and red in color with weight of ±75 gram per each (±1.3 kilogram/plant). This variety is resistant to bacterial infection of Pseudomonas solanacearum (wilt disease) and fungal infection of Phytopthora infestans (blight disease). Besides, the variety is suitable to be planted in the lowlands and highlands.

Intan Variety

Similar to Mutira variety, Intan variety is suitable to be planted in the lowlands and highlands. This variety starts flowering at age of 55-60 days after sowing and forms fruits after 70-80 days. Farmers can start harvesting at age of 3 months. Mature fruits of Intan variety are round, orange to red in colors, slick glossy and slightly wavy with weight of ±45 gram per each. The yields of harvesting can reach ±12.4 t per hectare. This variety is resistant to bacterial infection of Pseudomonas solanacearum. However, this variety is sensitive towards Phytopthora infestans that caused early blight of the leaves.

Berlian and Ratna Varieties

These varieties have similar characteristics with Mutiara and Intan varieties. The unique of these varieties is their apple-like fruits.

Read more about these varieties here.


The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List Version 1.1. 

Departemen Pertanian, Direktorat Jenderal Tanaman Pangan dan Hortikultura, 1996. Budidaya Tanaman Sayuran. V. Tomat. pp V-1 – V2.



Mentimun or cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae (The Plant List, 2013) and has been widely acknowledged by Indonesian natives. This type of fruit is categorized as one of vegetables and processed into various food menus such as acar, asinan (pickles), gado-gado, and lalap as well as food decoration. This plant grows as a creeper and has narrow rooting that caused sensitivity towards excess and shortage of water. Its stem is hairy, wet, branched and has spirals

There are two types of known cucumber in Indonesia that are local cucumber (greenish) and suri cucumber (yellowish). The local cucumber is often consumed as vegetable, while suri mentimun is used as an ingredient for cocktails.

Nutrient contents of cucumber is listed in Table 1 below.

Table 1. Nutrient contents of 100 g fresh cucumber

Nutrient Content Unit
Energy 12 Calory
Protein 0.7 g
Fat 0.1 g
Carbohydrate 2.7 g
Calcium 10 mg
Phosphor 21 mg
Iron (Fe) 0.3 mg
Vitamin A 0 SI
Vitamin B1 0.03 mg
Vitamin C 8 mg
Water 96.1 g
Edible part 70 %


The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List Version 1.1.

Departemen Pertanian, Direktorat Jenderal Tanaman Pangan dan Hortikultura, 1996. Budidaya Tanaman Sayuran


Kangkung (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.) belongs to the genus Ipomoea of the family Convolvulaceae (The Plant List, 2013). This species is a creeper and being loved by the whole society.  Young leaves and stems of kangkung (water spinach) are used as vegetables with various recipes, including stir fried water spinach, soups, gado-gado, pecel, lalapan, and others.

Instead of delicious taste, kangkung contains vitamins A and C, and important minerals, especially iron (Fe) which is needed for growth. High content of iron in kangkung is often associated with the treatment of anemia due to iron deficiency.  Nutrients content of kangkung is listed in Table 1.

Table 1. Nutrients content of 100 g of processed kangkung

Nutrient Unit Content
Energy Calory 29
Protein g 3.0
Fat g 0.3
Carbohydrate g 5.4
Calcium mg 73
Phosphor mg 50
Iron (Fe) mg 2.5
Vitamin A SI 6300
Vitamin B mg 0.07
Vitamin C mg 32
Water g 89.7
Edible part % 70


Departemen Pertanian, Direktorat Jenderal Tanaman Pangan dan Hortikultura, 1996. Budidaya Tanaman Sayuran. pp III-1 – III-8.

Kacang Panjang

Kacang panjang or long beans with scientific name as Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (formerly known as Vigna sinensis) is belongs to genus Vigna of the family Leguminosae (The Plant List, 2013). Kacang panjang is included as legumes vegetables, such as chickpeas, winged bean, and peas. Most of Indonesian people fond of  this vegetable because of its delicious and intricate tastes. Young long beans are often used as an ingredient of Indonesian food, such as gado-gado, karedok, and  various long beans menu of cuisines. Nutrients content of young long beans and its young leaf is presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Nutrients content of seed, leaf, and pod of long beans for every 100 gram of fresh material

Nutrient Unit


Seed Leaf Pod
Energy Calory 357 34 44
Protein g 17.3 4.1 2.7
Fat g 1.5 0.4 0.3
Carbohydrate g 70 5.8 7.8
Calcium mg 163 134 49
Phosphor mg 437 145 347
Iron (Fe) mg 6.9 6.2 0.7
Vitamin A SI 0 5240 335
Vitamin B1 mg 0.57 0.28 0.13
Vitamin C mg 2 29 21
Water g 12.2 88.3 88.5
Edible part % 100 65 75

According to Table 1, the content of Vitamin A in the young leaf of long beans is considered high compared to seed and pod. Hence, the consumption of young leaves of long beans can increase the intake of Vitamin A for communities. In addition, the harvest period for  the leaves of long beans is relatively short, which can effectively supply the market demand.


Departemen Pertanian, Direktorat Jenderal Tanaman Pangan dan Hortikultura, 1996. Budidaya Tanaman Sayuran. pp II-1 – II-20.

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List Version 1.1. A working list of all plant species.


Bayam (Amaranthus sp.) is belongs to the family Amaranthaceae and is one of the favorite leafy vegetables among Indonesian natives. It has delicious taste and soft texture that can relieve the stomach and improve the digestion system. The way to serve bayam as one of menu for lunch and dinner is easy and simple that is by boiling the leaves for 3-5 minutes with additions of little bit of salts or lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) and/or ginger (Zingiber officinale). Overcooked bayam is not recommended as the texture of the leaves might become too soft, and reduced the taste and also could destructed some important nutrients, such as vitamins A and C.

Boiled leaves of bayam are often used for pecel, gado-gado, and keripik bayam. Keripik bayam is made by dipping the leaves into the aqueous flour batter and then is fried using coconut oil until become crispy. Bayam contains vitamins and mineral salts that are required in human diet. Table 1 lists the nutrient contents in stem/leaves of 100 gram of fresh bayam.

Table 1. Nutrient contents of stem/leaves of 100 gram of fresh bayam

Nutrient Content
Calory 36 kal
Protein 3.5 g
Fat 0.5 g
Carbohydrate 6.5 g
Calcium 267 mg
Phosphor 67 mg
Iron (Fe) 3.9 mg
Vitamin A 6.090 SI
Vitamin B1 80 mg
Vitamin C 80 mg
Water 86.9 g
Edible part 71%

Two species of bayam are cultivated by farmers in Indonesia as follow:

Bayam Cabut (Amaranthus tricolor L.)

The name of “bayam cabut” is represented by the way this species is harvested, that is by pull the whole plant out of the ground. The species has two varieties of reddish stem and whitish green stem. Among the varieties that have been cultivated by farmers, only two were recognized as superior varieties that are Varietas Giti Hijau and Giti Merah.

Bayam tahun/sikap/kakap (Amaranthus hydridus L.)

The species has broad leaves when compared with A. tricolor. In contrast to “bayam cabut”, this species is harvested by collecting only leaves and young stems.


Departemen Pertanian, Direktorat Jenderal Tanaman Pangan dan Hortikultura, 1996. Budidaya Tanaman Sayuran. pp I-1- I-8.